Reading List

Reality orientation Therapy (ROT):
Talk about the time of day, the date, and the season; Use the person’s name frequently; Discuss current events: Refer to clocks and calendars; Place signs and labels on doors and cupboards; Ask questions about photos or other decorations –> transfer and extend this into augmented and mixed reality and NAO’s multimodal dialogue (including speech bubbles in AR)

  • Lucille R. Taulbee, James C. Folsom: Reality orientation for geriatric patients. In: Hospital and Community Psychiatry, (17) 133-135, 1966
  • Simon Douglas, Ian James and Clive Ballard, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2004) 10: 171-177. Non-pharmacological interventions in dementia
    1. It is increasingly recognised that pharmacological treatments for dementia should be used as a second -line approach and that non-pharmacological options should, in best practice, be pursued first. This review examines current non-pharmacological approache s. It highlights the more traditional treatments such as behavioural therapy, reality orientation and validation therapy, and also examines the potential of interesting new alternative options such as cognitive therapy, aromatherapy and multisensory therapies.
  • Woods B, Aguirre E, Spector AE, Orrell M. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2004) 10: 171-177. Can cognitive stimulation benefit people with dementia?
    1. People with dementia and their caregivers are often advised that ‘mental exercise’ may be helpful in slowing down the decline in memory and thinking experienced by many people with dementia. This review examined the evidence for one form of mental exercise, described as cognitive stimulation. This involves a wide range of activities that aim to stimulate thinking and memory generally, including discussion of past and present events and topics of interest, word games, puzzles, music and practical activities such as baking or indoor gardening. Typically this is carried out by trained staff with a small group of four or five people with dementia for around 45 minutes at least twice a week. Family caregivers have also been trained to provide cognitive stimulation to their relative on a one-to -one basis. 
      This review included 15 trials with a total of 718 participants. The findings suggested that cognitive stimulation has a beneficial effect on the memory and thinking test scores of people with dementia.
  • Correction Technique (ROT) vs. validation
    1. DAD: Where are my car keys? I have to get to work!
      SON: Dad, you don’t have a job. You’ve been retired for 20 years!
      DAD: What are you talking about? Of course I have a job!
      SON: No, you don’t. You don’t even have a car!
      DAD: Of course I have a car! I’ve been driving to work every day for the past 30 years! Why are you torturing me?
      SON: I’m not torturing you. Everything’s okay, Dad. Come and sit down!
      DAD (getting more and more agitated): Everything&rsqu o;s not okay! I can’t sit down, I have to get to work!
  • Validation Technique
    1. DAD: Where are my car keys? I have to get to work!
      SON: Oh. Do you have a busy day today?
      DAD: Of course I have a busy day! I’m busy every day!
      SON: Yes, I know. You did a great job in the garden yesterday. Would you like to help me again today? I need to plant the azaleas.
      DAD: Oh! Yes, your mother loved azaleas.
      SON: I know. Do you remember when we used to plant azaleas at the house on Maple Drive?
      DAD: I sure do. Your mother loved azaleas.

      By validating their concerns and then gently redirecting the person’s attention to something else, you make them feel valued and successful.

Memory Training/Cognitive assistance:

  • Declarative
    1. Episodic: encoding of eye gaze based activities including gaze-based text reading
      1. Semantic (concepts)
    • NAO reality orientation dialogue, ontology matching and common sense reasoning, theory of mind
    • Face recognition from MR and/or NAO, display in MR
    • eye tracker + display recognised faces on iWatch + big MR picture about episodes
  • Tacit
    1. physical exercises -> NAO choreography (multimodal generation including speech and gestures according to dialogue act)

Biographic Methods:

Therapeutic Milieu:

  • Supporting/Planning daily activities at home
    1. Towards virtual pets
    2. Intelligent fridge
    3. NAO robot as a butler for “daily routine”
    4. Conception of living environment
    • Communication help: Anoto Email Client
  • Depression reduction

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (support still existing capabilities for positive experiences):

  • Cooking therapy (also supports independent living)
  • Game playing
  • Serious Game Playing

Strategies to Ease the Burden of Family Caregivers:

Medical Product Guidance 

Artificial Intelligence Background involved:


Further selected topics: (also see AAAI workshop)

Assistive technology: devices that aid with mobility, medication management, and household tasks such as eating and grooming.
Cognitive Aids: technology that supports declining cognitive skills, including reminders, task instruction, and methods to reduce cognitive effort such as shopping and accessing transportation schedules.
Passive Monitoring: devices and reasoning systems that recognize the elder’s activity and learn to detect abnormal situations.
Decision-making: reasoning systems that respond to situations and the elder’s needs by interacting with devices in the home, interacting with the elder, or contacting caregivers.
Human factors: interfaces that meet elder’s needs and capabilities – motor, sensory and cognitive.
Adaptation: techniques to recognize the elder’s changing capabilities.
Specific technologies that support one or more of these areas include robotics, computer vision, speech understanding, knowledge representation, planning, machine learning, situation assessment, task tracking, agents, software architectures and human computer/robot interfaces.